References and Appendices

Submission to Special Committee on Electoral Reform:


Blais, A., & Aarts, K.(2006, July). Electoral Systems and
Turnout. Acta Politica, 41(2), 180-196. Broadbent Institute. (2015).

Canadian Electoral Reform: Public Opinion on Possible Alternatives. Montreal, Canada: Author.

Knutsen, C. (March 2011). Which Democracies Prosper? Electoral
Rules, Form of Government and Economic Growth. Electoral Studies, 30 (1), 83-90.

Lijphart, A. (2012). Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and
Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Richie, R. & Hill, S. (1996, Summer). The Case for Proportional
Representation. Retrieved from

Studlar, D. (1999). Will Canada Seriously Consider Electoral
Reform? Women and Aboriginals should.

In H. Milner (Ed.), Making Every Vote Count: Reassessing Canada’s Electoral System (table 10-1).
Peterborough, Canada: Broadview Press.



Appendix A:

 Electoral system principles as expressed by the Parliamentary Committee to Reform Canada’s electoral system:

First Principle: Canadians should believe that their intentions as voters are fairly translated into elections results, without (the) significant distortion that often characterizes elections conducted under the First-Past-The-Post system.

Second Principle: Canadians’ confidence needs to be restored in their ability to influence politics and in their belief that their vote is meaningful.

Third Principle: Reforms need to increase diversity in the House of Commons and politics more broadly.

Fourth Principle: The chosen reform can’t make the electoral system more complex.

Fifth Principle: Voting needs to be user-friendly and accessible.

Sixth Principle: Maintain the vital local connection an MP has with their constituents.

Seventh Principle:  It needs to be secure and verifiable.

Eighth Principle: Canadians need to be inspired to find common ground and consensus.

Appendix B:

The Broadbent Institute report on Canadian Electoral Reform lists five goals Canadians most value in an electoral system:

    1. the ballot is simple and easy to understand;

    2. the system produces stable and strong government;

    3. the system allows you to directly elect MPs who represent your community;

    4. the system ensures that the government has MPs from each region of the country; and

    5. the system ensures that the number of seats [or Parliamentary Votes] held by a party in Parliament closely matches their actual level of support throughout the country. (Broadbent Institute, 2015, p.21)

Appendix C:

If the 2015 federal election was held under the Single Member Party Proportional electoral system, in alphabetical order the results would be as follows:

        – Bloc Quebec: 4.7% of national vote = 15.8 H. of C. Votes or 1.5 votes per MP

        – Conservative: 31.9% of national vote = 107.8 H. of C. Votes or 1.1 votes per MP

        – Green: 3.5% of national vote = 11.8 H. of C. Votes or 11.8 votes per MP

        – Liberal: 39.5% of national vote = 133.5 H. of C. Votes or 0.72 votes per MP

        – New Democratic: 19.7% of national vote = 66.5 H. of C. Votes or 1.5 votes per MP.